Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behaviour caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). All behaviour can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.
The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory can be divided into two specific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and the Cognitive Behavioural Theory (CBT).
When we say the word “learning”, we usually mean “to think using the brain”. This basic concept of learning is the main viewpoint in the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). The theory has been used to explain mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which eventually bring about learning in an individual.
- Jean Piaget
- Lev Vygotsky
- Robert Gagne
- David Ausubel
- Jerome Brunner
Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective.
- Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896 – 1943)
- Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)
- John Dewey (1859 – 1952)
- Jerome Seymour Bruner (1915 – 2016)